Latin 7/Main Menu
LATIN 8: THE EASY WAY
© 1999 by C. J. Cherryh
New words: new type of word.
Joinings of two actors or joinings of two actees.
-que...and [in a set, usually a pair] and not BETWEEN the words, but after the pair. Gladius scutumque. Sword 'n shield. Rare with persons, more common with things.
et A et B....means "both A and B" Et Caesar et Cleopatra....Both Caesar and Cleopatra...
atque...and [very strong; we'd use italics on such a word] and; also means: "and, what is more," : Calpurnia Caesarem atque Cleopatram videt .....Caesar and Cleopatra, both, ....or...Calpurnia spies Caesar, not to mention Cleopatra....You can be fairly loose translating this one, as the main idea is a really strong and.
Marcus Brutus et Caesar Cleopatram......ah! but what do we do with the action? No longer "he", but "they"!
We make it a plural [more than one actor] action....and the basic change? Where there was -t, use -nt.
-it > unt/iunt [audire and its type, the -ire words, have the extra "i".]
miles militem: say MEE-lace, MEE-lee-taym means "soldier"
consul....consulem...a consul [highest civil rank: president: there were two at any one time.]
centuria....centuriam......a "century", 60 to 100 men, smallest operational unit of the Roman army.
legio.....legionem.....legion [3000 to 6000]
aquila...aquilam.....eagle [legion standard; also an eagle, as in wildlife]
pilum....pilum....javelin [one of those no-sex words, like scutum and baculum]
Ecce! Et Marcus Brutus et Caesar Cleopatram vident. Cleopatra Romam videt. Cleopatra Caesarem atque Marcum Brutum videt. Cleopatra Caesarem amat. Cleopatra Caesarem et Antonium amat. Gladiatores Caesarem audiunt. Caesar militem ducit. . Miles scutum pilumque habet. Gladiator gladium et scutum habet. Caesar militem audit. Miles Caesarem atque Antonium videt. Cervus cervaque lupum vident. Milites Cleopatram vident. Caesar legionem ducit. Centurio centuriam ducit. Caesar centurionem ducit. Gladiator et miles Roman vident. Cleopatra Calpurniam videt atque audit. Centurio baculum tenet. Dux militem ducit. Dux Cleopatram et Antonium videt. Legio aquilam habet. Aquila legionem ducit. Centurio scutum et gladium parat. Miles pilum iacit. Miles non scutum iacit. An legio aquilam tenet? Tenetne Brutus aquilam?
Every language has its favorite points of elaboration. Several words for "and" may seem excessive, but if you listen to English very carefully, you'll notice we have more than one way of saying "and" such as salt 'n pepper [like -que] and and, spoken very strongly, for really, really, really "and". Then just plain "and" and "both...and"...These are, you may remember from high school, "conjunctions." The "both...and" is a "correlative conjunction".